How do electric cars work? Main components of an electric car

electric cars

In today's times, due to the increase in the price of petrol and CNG, everyone is looking at electric cars as an alternative. The popularity of electric vehicles is increasing day by day, so let us know how electric vehicles can take you from one place to another. Electric vehicles (EVs) are among the first to avoid rising gasoline, diesel, and gas prices or reduce environmental impact as electric cars' production costs drop and charging infrastructure improves. But how do those electric cars actually work? we will know!

Electric vehicles (EVs) are a growing industry. The global number of electric vehicles on the road is projected to increase from 8 million in 2019 to 50 million in 2025 and 140 million by 2030. Many major automakers are embracing selling EVs.

Electric vehicles exist just like diesel and petrol-powered cars. Some models also have non-functional fake grills. But the real difference between EVs and petrol-diesel cars lies under the hood.

Electric Vehicle Parts

Electric vehicles have no engine, radiator, carburetor, or spark plugs. Some electric vehicles have a front trunk, where the engine is usually located. Electric vehicles (EVs) may operate differently from conventional vehicles, but they have similar systems.

  • Motor 
  • Fuel source
Electric car

EV batteries

EV batteries store energy to power the vehicle. The battery is actually a collection of many small lithium-ion battery modules that are made up of individual battery cells (about the size of an AAA battery). These batteries are connected together in electrical circuits to provide maximum power in the best possible way.

The battery is the most expensive part of electronic vehicles, so the work in battery technology is done very fast so that the cost of the expensive part of the electric vehicles can be reduced and the energy density of the battery is also high. increased.

One danger of lithium-ion batteries is "thermal runaway," which can lead to a fire. To prevent this, the battery pack is cooled by a thermal management system and a protective casing.


The motor in an electric vehicle converts electricity into mechanical power. When electricity is sent from the battery to a stationary part of the motor (stator), it creates a magnetic field that rotates the rotating part.

A spinning rotor generates mechanical power, which uses a gear to turn the car's wheels. The higher the power, the faster the rotor spins, and since electric vehicles have no shifting between gears, the transitions between acceleration and deceleration are smooth.

While gasoline or gas-powered car may have only one combustion engine, an electric vehicle may have multiple motors that operate independently. A dual-motor vehicle has one motor for starting and stopping city driving and the other motor (often called an induction motor) for high-speed driving.

Electric Vehicle Exhaust System (EV Exhaust System)

Often people or new drivers are interested in how much vibration or noise an electric vehicle makes. This can be gauged from the fact that when an electric vehicle is stopped at an intersection, only the control panel lights up to inform drivers that it is still in motion. With zero tailpipe emissions, electric vehicles help mitigate one of the main causes of climate change.

How to drive an electric vehicle?

The difference between electric and gas-powered cars affects the way they are driven, fueled, and maintained.

Acceleration Power

Electric vehicles are known for their quick-stop acceleration and instant forward propulsion.

Torque is the force that creates rotation in a car's motor. As petrol or petrol engines start at low rpm and move through the gear shift, they take some time to reach maximum torque.

Whereas in an electric vehicle, the maximum torque is reached immediately when the accelerator is pressed. Some electric vehicles have high 0-60 acceleration, which is very useful when entering highways, passing slow-moving vehicles, and avoiding accidents.


When a driver applies the brakes in an electric vehicle, "regenerative braking" takes energy from the vehicle's motion. As this electricity is sent back to the battery, no power is wasted.

Driving with regenerative braking means the vehicle decelerates faster than a petrol or gas car every time you take your foot off the accelerator. Regenerative braking allows for "one pedal driving" where the brake pedal is used sparingly.


An EV has a lower center of gravity than gas cars, with much larger, heavier batteries located at the bottom of the EV. This improves its handling in corners and slippery road conditions. This reduces the frequency of rollovers, improving the safety of the car.


Even fast-charging electric vehicles take longer than it takes to fill up with gasoline or gas. However, 80 percent of EV charging is done at home, similar to the way we charge our phones, and charging speeds are better for long-distance trips and for those who can't charge at home. Very suitable.

electric cars

Electric Vehicle Repair

Electric vehicles are more like a computer on wheels than mechanical devices. Like digital device manufacturers, some EV manufacturers send software updates over the air to improve their vehicles' performance or add new features. This not only prolongs the life of the vehicle but also reduces its operating costs.

Electric vehicles are better and more efficient, even if drivers don't try. This means that electric cars can increase in value over time and improve their sustainability.

Frequently Asked Questions

There are generally four types of EVs:

Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), which are fully electric; Hybrid (HEV), plugless cars equipped with batteries and fuel tanks; A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), a midway point between a hybrid and an electric vehicle; and hydrogen electric vehicles (fuel cells), unusual vehicles that run on hydrogen.

Electric cars can be charged at home (using a standard 120-volt outlet) or at public charging stations.

Most electric vehicles can go 250 to 350 miles on a single charge and require a constant charge of 20 percent to 80 percent. While many people charge their cars overnight, some experts say frequent charging can shorten battery life.

Electric cars are so new that it's hard to say how long they'll last. Generally, they last 10 to 20 years.

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